What Is The Sykes-Picot Agreement And How Does It Influence Politics In The Middle East

One of Daesh`s stated objectives is to dismantle the agreement. The head of the outfit, Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi, called for the decomposed nations of the region to be replaced by a transnational regional power called the “caliphate”. In the Sykes-Picot Agreement, concluded on 19 May 1916, France and Great Britain divided the Arab territories of the former Ottoman Empire into spheres of influence. In its intended area, it was agreed that each country can establish a direct or indirect administration or control, as they wish and as they see fit to agree with the Arab State or with the Arab confederation. Under Sykes-Picot, the Syrian coast and much of present-day Lebanon went to France; Britain would take direct control of central and southern Mesopotamia around the provinces of Baghdad and Basra. Palestine would have an international administration, because other Christian powers, namely Russia, were interested in this region. The rest of the territory in question – a vast territory with syria today, Mosul in northern Iraq and Jordan – would have local Arab leaders under French surveillance to the north and Britons to the south. In addition, Britain and France would retain free passage and trade within the other`s zone of influence. Many sources claim that Sykes-Picot came into conflict with the Hussein-McMahon correspondence of 1915-1916 and that the publication of the agreement in November 1917 led to the resignation of Sir Henry McMahon. [107] There were several differences, iraq being the most obvious in the British red territory, and less obvious, the idea that British and French advisers would have control of the area designated as an Arab state. Finally, while the correspondence did not mention Palestine, Haifa and Acre should be British and the brown territory (a reduced Palestine) should become internationalized. [108] The agreement was first directly used as the basis for the Anglo-French modus vivendi of 1918, which provided a framework for the Occupied Enemy Territory Administration in the Levant. More generally, it was to lead indirectly to the subsequent partition of the Ottoman Empire after the Ottoman defeat of 1918.

Shortly after the war, French Palestine and Mosul ceded to the British. Warrants in the Levant and Mesopotamia were awarded at the San Remo conference in April 1920, according to the Sykes-Picot framework; The British mandate for Palestine ran until 1948, the British mandate for Mesopotamia was to be replaced by a similar treaty with compulsory Iraq, and the French mandate for Syria and Lebanon lasted until 1946. The anatolic parts of the agreement were attributed by the Treaty of Sevres of August 1920; But these ambitions were thwarted by the Turkish War of Independence of 1919-23 and the Subsequent Treaty of Lausanne. (a) France demands a regime which (1) compensates it for the inconvenience and losses associated with the disorganization of the Ottoman Empire (2) will ensure its historical and traditional position in Syria (3) to give it the full opportunity to realize its economic aspirations in the Middle East. b) Arabs demand (1) recognition of their nationality, (2) the protection of their race from foreign oppression and (3) the possibility of re-establishing their position as a contribution to the progress of the world. (c) Great Britain requires (1) to secure its position in the Persian Gulf, (2) the possibility of developing sub-mesopotamia, (3) (a) commercial and military communications between the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean by land; b) influence in an area sufficient to provide irrigation work suitable for irrigation in Mesopotamia and contain a suitable local recruitment site for administrative purposes. ( 4) to obtain commercial facilities in the area in question.

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