A carbon tax is a tax levied on the carbon content of fuels, usually in the transportation and energy sectors. CO2 taxes aim to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by increasing fossil fuel prices and reducing the demand for fossil fuels.  CO2 taxes are a form of carbon pricing. The term “carbon tax” also refers to a tax on carbon dioxide emissions, which is very similar, but can be applied to any type of greenhouse gas or combination of greenhouse gases emitted by each economic sector.  Although the United States does not currently introduce a carbon tax, many U.S. groups charge an “internal carbon price.” Companies calculate this internal price to assess the risk value of future projects as part of economic investment decisions. Companies generally rate a higher internal price when (i) the company emits large amounts of CO2 and (ii) if the company continues to project into the future.  Oil companies generally have assets (factories, refineries) that have a long lifespan and that may be influenced by energy policy in the future; The products and assets of consumer goods companies are mainly influenced by current policies, so their carbon prices are generally lower. On July 1, 2012, the Australian federal government introduced a CO2 price of AUD 23 per tonne of CO2 emitted for certain fossil fuels consumed by large industrial emitters and public bodies such as councils. To offset the impact of tax on certain sectors of society, the government has reduced income tax (by increasing the tax-exempt threshold) and slightly increased pensions and social benefits to cover expected price increases, as well as the introduction of compensation for certain sectors concerned. On July 17, 2014, a report by the Australian National University estimated that the Australian system had reduced CO2 emissions by 17 million tonnes, the largest annual reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in 2013 as the carbon tax helped to help reduce pollution from the electricity sector.
 Semi-finished gold. In 2018, the EU imported $32 billion worth of semi-finished gold, mainly used in jewellery, electronics and dental products.